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Besides being contrary to the Scripture, this theory was against common-sense observation: the sun appears to move around the earth from east to west. Until the appearance of De revolutionibus , Ptolemy's Almagest had been the most influential textbook of astronomy for more than a thousand years. Neugebauer has remarked in The Exact Sciences in Antiquity that De revolutionibus and Almagest are parallel works "chapter by chapter, theorem by theorem and table by table.

Copernicus' work was highly technical and only the first 5 percent dealt with the heliocentric theory. But it was not "the book that nobody read" as Arthur Koestler said in The Sleepwalkers Koestler's statement was proved wrong by Owen Gingerich in The Book Nobody Read , which shows that it was widely read and studied. In spite of his new system of planetary motion, Copernicus was a devoted admirer of the ancients, and his original aim was to revise Ptolemy so that it was more in line with Aristotelian principles.

Actually, his theory was a return to a model rejected in ancient times. Galileo called in Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina Copernicus the theory's "restorer and confirmer". The Polish astronomer knew well that the Greek mathematician and astronomer Aristarchus of Samos ca. The Ptolemaic system appeared to Copernicus to be empirically adequate but he criticized it for theoretical if not aesthetic reasons. Consisting mainly of a set of mathematical means for calculating heavenly movements, Almagest did not solve "the structure of the universe and the true symmetry of its parts," as Copernicus said in De revolutionibus.

Also the great Islamic philosopher Averroes had noted much earlier in his Commentary on Aristotle's Book on the Heavens c. According to Ptolemy, the planets move in epicycles, circles whose centers orbit the earth. Copernicus introduced additional circles and motions to his model, to make its predictions as accurate as possible. This did not make his model more simpler, although it provided a rational explanation for the peculiar loops retrogressions of the planets.

Minor Works: Nicholas Copernicus' Complete Works

Especially the odd behavior of Mars had caused great difficulties for Ptolemaic astronomers. In Tycho Brahe's system the traditional planets orbited the sun, and the sun orbited the earth.

Kepler dropped the epicycles entirely and transformed the orbits into ellipses. Copernicus' new astronomical paradigm radically transformed the way scientists saw the universe but it did not change the language or our everyday perception: we still say "the sun rises" and behave as if the sun turns and we remain immobile. Kuusankosken kaupunginkirjasto With his permitted time about to elapse, he went to the University of Ferrara in , where two professors at the university prepared him for an examination in canon law.

2.0—How Did Our Understanding of the Universe Change?

Copernicus passed the examination on the first try, returned to Varmia with his doctorate in canon law , and almost immediately joined the retinue of his uncle at the episcopal residence in Lidzbark Warmi ski. He remained there until During those seven years Copernicus found the time to work his way through several of the books that he had purchased in Italy, and also consulted books in the collection of the episcopal library.

Understanding His Cosmology. Some scholars believe that a mathematical analysis of models and technical details led him to his theory. Others believe that more qualitative and relatively less technical considerations led him to the conclusion that the celestial spheres of ancient Aristotelian cosmology and ancient astronomy could be ordered uniformly only by imagining Earth with its Moon in motion around the Sun.

Transforming that solution into a technically competent system required several decades to accomplish, and the final results were not altogether satisfactory. The principal goal or task of that tradition was to construct models that preserved the perfectly uniform, circular motions of the celestial spheres while agreeing with the observations within the then limits of accuracy.

The goal, it turns out, was unachievable. This conviction spurred them to complete what Copernicus had begun. The details, of course, fascinate experts. Copernicus accepted the ancient idea that planets are attached to or embedded in spheres. They do not float through space. The spheres support, contain, and move the planets. He was silent on the separate questions about the nature of the spheres and whether or not they are solid or hard. Spheres or orbs were considered to be three-dimensional bodies whatever their nature , and so were solid in the same abstract sense in which any three-dimensional body is said to be a solid, but Copernicus did not elaborate.

He knew that he had to justify his departures from Aristotle, which he did by constructing a number of arguments that relied on standard techniques of medieval logic and on other ancient authors, especially Pliny, Cicero, and a Greek dictionary known as the Suidae lexicon. Some later authors were persuaded by such arguments, but for about a century most could not overcome the arguments based on common sense, and so they judged his theory to be absurd.

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The principal objections were physical. How is it possible for Earth to move so rapidly and its motion be insensible and imperceptible? His Motivation. What motivated Copernicus to discover and then propose an idea that he could expect nearly everyone to reject? There are generally two approaches to this question, as briefly mentioned above. According to the first, numerous inconsistencies in the ancient-medieval astronomical-cosmological tradition troubled Copernicus.

For example, why are the planets arranged around Earth.

Mercury and Venus move with the Sun, and so both have a zodiacal period of one year. Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn were placed beyond the Sun in that order, according to their sidereal periods. On this reading, Copernicus assumed that the planets should be ordered according to one principle. The Capellan arrangement probably inspired him to consider ordering all of the planets around the Sun, placing Earth with its Moon in orbit to fill the large gap between Venus and Mars.

His calculation of the sidereal periods of Mercury and Venus would have confirmed their ordering, thus working out a unique arrangement of all of the planets ordered according to a single principle, sidereal periods. On this reading, he would have rejected the geo-heliocentric alternative because it entails the intersection of the spheres of Mars and the Sun, an unacceptable alternative, and so would have settled on the heliocentric conversion. There seems to be little question in the early twenty-first century that Copernicus did rely on those two propositions in the Epitome to convert the models, but he may not have recognized that possibility until after he had already formulated the heliocentric theory.

Unfortunately, his copy of the Epitome has disappeared. His first effort with double-epicycle models for the planets and the Moon later gave way to the mature presentation in De revolutionibus. Earth orbited by the Moon on a double-epicycle circles the mean sun eccentric to the true or apparent Sun. In addition, following Ptolemy, he also provided separate accounts for the motions of the planets in latitude. Copernicus and his genuine followers were convinced of the truth of his system for primarily four reasons.

First, his arrangement of the planets yields a natural explanation for the observation of the bounded elongations of Mercury and Venus. Second, the motion of Earth explains the observation of the retrograde motions of all of the planets as an optical illusion. The third reason is the ordering of the planets around the sun according to sidereal periods; Copernicus was most proud of this result. The theory had disadvantages, of course. There were principally four. The first is the absence of a coherent physical theory to account for the motions of Earth.

Finally, the heliocentric theory contradicted some passages of the Bible literally interpreted. For one or all of these reasons, most astronomers and philosophers rejected the theory for several decades. His Ideas in Natural Philosophy. What he says is very sketchy, making it necessary to reconstruct his intentions. Some believe that he merely revised Aristotelian principles, adapting them to heliocentrism.

Others have demonstrated his reliance on other ancient authorities, and argue that his views derive from Neopla-tonic and Stoic sources. Osiander advocated a strictly mathematical interpretation of the hypotheses and rejection of any physical interpretation. His few supporters were spared official censure for several decades. Ironically, by the time church and theological authorities censured the work, evidence in support of the theory was growing.

Whether Copernicus ever saw what Osiander had done is unknown. In when the book appeared he was near death, perhaps in a coma, when Rheticus brought a copy to him. By the mid-seventeenth century Copernicus became an icon for the lone scientist standing against what the world regards as common sense and for the courageous exercise of imagination in pursuit of the truth.


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In his own mind and words, he saw himself as having tried to restore and achieve the goals of ancient astronomy. Indeed, as an astronomer he was a conservative, but that cannot undo the fact, also contrary to his intention perhaps, that he introduced a revolution in cosmology that in turn contributed to the rise of modern science, a consequence that some refer to as the scientific revolution.

Locationes mansorum desertorum.

Introduction

Edited by Marian Biskup. Olsztyn, Poland: Pojeziere, Three Copernican Treatises. Translated by Edward Rosen.